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EASA 66 Module 2 explains the basics of Physics using easy to understand language and engaging graphics.The student will come away with a fundamental knowledge of matter, mechanics, optics and other topics that are necessary for understanding aircraft engines and systems.
  • 2.1 Matter
    • Nature of matter: the chemical elements, structure of atoms, molecules;
    • Chemical compounds;
    • States: solid, liquid and gaseous;
    • Changes between states.
  • 2.2 Mechanics


    • Forces, moments and couples, representation as vectors;
    • Centre of gravity;
    • Elements of theory of stress, strain and elasticity:tension, compression, shear and torsion;Nature and properties of solid, fluid and gas;Pressure and buoyancy in liquids (barometers).
    • Kinetics

    • Linear movement: uniform motion in a straight line,motion under constant acceleration (motion under gravity);
    • Rotational movement: uniform circular motion (centrifugal/centripetal forces);
    • Periodic motion: pendulous movement;
    • Simple theory of vibration, harmonics and resonance;Velocity ratio, mechanical advantage and efficiency.
    • Dynamics

    • a) Mass, Force, inertia, work, power, energy (potential,kinetic and total energy), heat, efficiency;
    • b) Momentum, conservation of momentum; Impulse;Gyroscopic principles;
    • Friction: nature and effects, coefficient of friction (rolling resistance).
    • Fluid Dynamics

    • a) Specific gravity and density;
    • b) Viscosity, fluid resistance, effects of streamlining;Effects of compressibility on fluids; Static, dynamic and total pressure: Bernoulli's Theorem, Venturi
  • 2.3 Thermodynamics
    • a) Temperature: thermometers and temperature scales:Celsius, Fahrenheit and Kelvin;Heat definition.
    • Graphical representation; nature and uses of graphs,graphs of equations/functions
    • Simple trigonometry; trigonometrically relationships,use of tables and rectangular and polar co-ordinates
    • b) Heat capacity, specific heat;Heat transfer convection, radiation and conduction;Volumetric xpansion;
    • First and second law of thermodynamics;Gases: ideal gases laws; specific heat at constant volume and constant volume and pressure,work done by expanding gas; Isothermal, adiabatic expansion and compression, engine cycles, constant volume and constant pressure, refrigerators and heat pumps;Latent heats of fusion and evaporation, thermal energy,heat of combustion.

  • 2.4 Optics (Light)
    • Nature of light; speed of light;
    • Laws of reflection and refraction: reflection at plane surfaces, reflection by spherical mirrors,refraction, lenses;Fiber optics.

  • 2.5 Wave Motion and Sound

      Wave Motion

    • Nature of light; speed of light;
    • Mechanical waves, sinusoidal wave motion, interference phenomena, standing waves;


    • Speed of sound, production of sound, intensity, pitch and quality, Doppler effect.